There are various mitigation strategies to cope up with drought.
Public Awareness and education:
If the community is aware of the do’s and don’ts, then half of the problem is solved. This includes awareness on the availability of safe drinking water, water conservation techniques, agricultural drought management strategies like crop contingency plans, construction of rain water harvesting structure.
Awareness can be generated by the print, electronic and folk media.
It is continuous observation of the rainfall situation, availability of water in the reservoirs, lakes, rivers etc and comparing with the existing water needs in various sectors of the society.
Water supply augmentation and conservation through rainwater harvesting in houses and farmers’ fields increases the content of water available.
Water harvesting by either allowing the runoff water from all the fields to a common point (e.g. Farm ponds, see the picture) or allowing it to infiltrate into the soil where it has fallen (in situ) (e.g. contour bunds, contour cultivation, raised bed planting etc) helps increase water availability for sustained agricultural production.
Expansion of irrigation facilities reduces the drought vulnerability. Land use based on its capability helps in optimum use of land and water and can avoid the undue demand created due to their misuse.
Livelihood planning identifies those livelihoods which are least affected by the drought. Some of such livelihoods include increased off-farm employment opportunities, collection of non-timber forest produce from the community forests, raising goats, carpentry etc.
Drought planning: the basic goal of drought planning is to improve the effectiveness of preparedness and response efforts by enhancing monitoring, mitigation and response measures.
Planning would help in effective coordination among state and national agencies in dealing with the drought.
Components of drought plan include establishing drought taskforce which is a team of specialists who can advise the government in taking decision to deal with drought situation, establishing coordination mechanism among various agencies which deal with the droughts, providing crop insurance schemes to the farmers to cope with the drought related crop losses, and public awareness generation.