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A.D 1453 the Ottoman Empire captures Constantine Noble and blocked trade between Asia and Europe. After those European rulers promote scientific navigation to discover India particularly Portugal ruler the Hendry promotes wide scale.



 He was born in Genoa, Italy.

✦ He was interested in sea navigation and followed Morco polo’s travel notes.

✦ Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he started his voyage in Santa Maria ship in 1492. After 50 days of travel he reached West Indies in the eastern coast of North America. He considered that place as India and called those people as Red Indians.

✦ In 1520, Americo Vespuki founded that the land found by Columbus was not India and the new land was named after him as America.




In 1487 Bathalomia Diaz reached southern tip of Africa that is called Cape of Good Hope.


VASCO DA GAMA ( 1460 BC – 1524 BC)

✦ He was from Portuguese. Worked under Bartheloma diaz to built the ship for his sea navigation. On May 20, 1498 Vasco da gama reached Calicut in India with the help of an Indian merchant.

✦ Discovery of the new and all-sea route from Europe to India, viz. the Cape Route, by Vascoda Gama. He reached the port of Calicut on the 20th May ,1498 and was received warmly by the Hindu ruler of Calicut (known by the little of Zamorin)

✦ Cochin was the early capital of Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it.



✦ He was the first governor of India appointed by Portuguese. He followed “blue water policy”. Thereby he controlled people’s settlements

✦ In 1509 BC, he was murdered by Egyptians. He promoted marital relationship with Indians and Portuguese



✦ He succeeded Almeida. In 1510, He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur, from then Goa was the capital of Portuguese in India. He maintained good relationship with Vijayanagara Empire. He was considered as an efficient ruler who strengthened their rule in India.

✦ Establishment of settlements at Daman, Salsette, Chaul and Bombay on the western coast at San Thome near Madras and at Hugli in Bengal by the successors of Albuquerque

✦  After the arrival of French and British, Portuguese rule declined in india.



Cochin                         1501

Cannanore                 1502

Goa                             1510

Diu & Daman            1534

Hugly                         (lost in 1632)

Bombay                     (given to English 1662)     



✦ Formation of the Dutch East India Company in 1602 by a charter of the Dutch Parliament.

✦ Establishment  of factories at Masulipatnam(1605),Pulicat(1610),Surat(1616),Nagapatnam(1658),etc.,

✦ In the 17th century, they supplanted the Portuguese as the most dominant power. Pulicat was their main centre in India till 1690, after which Nagapatnam replaced it.

✦ In 1623, the Dutch traders killed many British traders in Ambayna. So that the British company gradually forced the Dutch company to evacuate from India.



Masulipatnam    (1605)

Pulicat                 (1610)



✦ Formation of the ‘English East India Company’ in 1599;grant of a charter to the new company  by Queen Elizabeth 1600

✦ Decision of the EICO to open a factory at Surat and arrival of Captain Hawkins at Jahangir’s Court (1609)to seek his permission grant of a ‘farman’by Jahangir permitting the English to erect a factory at Surat (1613)

✦  Arrival of Sir Thomas Roe at Jahangir’s court in 1615-obtained the emperor’s permission to trade and erect factories in different parts of the empire. Establishment of factories at Masulipatnam

✦  In 1639 Francis Day obtained the site of Madras from the Raja of Chandragiri with the permission to build a fortified factory, which was named Fort St.George.

✦  Madras soon replaced Masulipatnam as head quarters of the English on the Corammandel coast

✦  Establishment of a factory at Sutanuti by Job Charnock in 1690

✦  Calcutta: the factory at Sutanuti was fortified in 1696 and this new fortified settlement was named Fort William in 1700


Surat                                          (1608)

Sultanati,Calicut,Govindpur    (1698)

Pulicat                                       (1620)

Madras                                      (1639)

Sultanati,Calicut,Govindpur     (1698)



✦ Denmark also established trade settlements in India. Their settlement at Tranquebar was founded in 1620. Another important Danish settlement in India was Serampore in Bengal.

✦ Serampore was their headquarters in India. They failed to strengthen themselves in India and they sold all their settlement in India to the British in 1845.



✦ The French The French East India Company was formed in 1664 by Colbert, a Minister under Louis XIV.

✦ Later, Maracara set up a factory at Masulipattinam. Francois Martin founded Pondicherry in 1673.

✦ The first French factory in India was established at Surat by Francis Caron.

✦ Other French factories in India were Chandranagore, Mahe and Karaikal. Francois Martin was the first governor of Pondicherry, the headquarters of the French possessions in India.

✦ Arrival of Dupleix as French Governor in India in 1742 and the beginning of the Anglo French conflict (Carnatic Wars) resulting in their final defeat in India.



Surat First Factory        (1668)

Musulipatnam               (1669)

Pondicherry                  (1673)



✦ In 1588,the English defeated the Spanish Armada and consequently they became the most important naval power of Europe

✦ English East India Company was started by 100 London merchants who received permission from Queen Elizabeth-I on December 31st 1600 to carry on trade with the East

✦ In 1608,King James I of England sent Captain William Hawkins to the court of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir to obtain permission to establish a factory at Surat

✦ In 1615,Sir Thomas Roe arrived at the court of Jahangir and succeeded in getting permission to set up their trading centers at Agra, Broach and ahmedabad

✦ In 1639,FRANCIS DAY, bought a piece of Land from the Raja of Chanragiri and laid foundation for modern Madras  for a small rent

✦ In 1640 the English built Fort St.George to protect their trade Charles II the King of England married Catherine, daughter of  King of Portugal. He got Bombay a small village as  a part of dowry In 1668 Charles II gave Bombay on lease to the English East India Company on  a national rent of £ 10

✦ In 1699 they got permission from Aurangabad and set up a factory at Calcutta


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