TNPSC MODERN INDIA (ENGLISH)
MODERN INDIA WARS
FIRST CARNATIC WAR
Austrian war of succession was the main reason for first Karnatic war
✦Period 1746 AD-1748
✦ Carnatic consisted of cholamandalam and its surrounding places
✦ Because of war of succession in Austria, French and English started war in India
✦ French Governor Duplex along with Moritious governor la-bourdnas captured Chennai.
✦ The army of Arcot Nawab Anwaruddin which supported the English was defeated by the French at Adayar
✦ The first Carnatic war was ended by the treaty of Aix-la-chappelle in 1748 as per treaty they handover their territory.
TREATY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE
✦ In 1748, the general war between the England and French ended and, as a part of the peace settlement, Madras was restored to the English by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chaplle in 1748 which ended the Austrian war of succession.
✦ Under the terms of Treaty of madras was handed back to the English much to disgust of Dupleix. Though the First Carnatic War ended, the rivalry in trade and over the possessions in India continued and had to be decided one way or the other.
SECOND CARNATIC WAR:-
The war of succession of Hyderabad, Karnataka, and conflicts of British and French.
✦ Period 1748 AD – 1754 AD.
✦ French and English interferred the politics of Tamil Nadu for the first time during this war.
✦ Chanda Saheb, the son in law of Dost Ali with the help of French and Anvaruddin with the help of English made war of succession for the throne of Arcot Nawab.
✦ But Anvaruddin was killed at Ambur was in 1749. And his son Muhammad escaped to Trichy. Chanda sahib besieged trichy Rockfort.
✦ Using this lucky situation, Robrt Clive from Bengal captured Arcot in 1751. So he was called as the ‘HERO OF ARCOT’.
✦ In the mean time, Muzabar Jung with the help of French and Nasir Jung with the help of English took war of succession to emerge as of The Nizam of Hydrabad. But Nasir jung was defeated and killed by Musabar jung.
✦ The Arcot war reduced the fame and strength of French in Tamil Nadu.
✦ The second Carnatic war ended up by the TREATY OF PONDICHERRY in 1755.
TREATY OF PONDICHERRY,1754
✦ The Treaty of Pondicherry which brought an end to Second Carnatic War had the following provisions:
✦ Promise of the England and the French companies not to interfere in the internal affairs of Indian rulers.
✦ Acceptance to stay of the French Army under Bussy at Hyderabad.
✦ Return by the English and French companies of the conquered parts of each other.
✦ Treaty to be finalized only after the approval of the respective governments of the two companies at home.
THIRD CARNATIC WAR(1758-1763)
✦ The significant events of the war were:
✦ Outbreak of the seven years war in Europe in 1756, the capture of Chandranagore by Clive and Watson (1757) in Bengal and the arrival of Court de lally to retrieve the position of the French in India (1758).
✦ Defeat of the French fleet under‘d’ Ache by the English Navy under Pocock in three naval battles.
✦ Defeat of Count de Lally by the English General Eyre Coote in the BATTLE OF WANDIWASH (fort in the Carnatic state) (Janauary 22, 1760).
✦ Replacement of the French by the English as the Nizam’s protectors (March, 1760), surrender of Pondicherry to the English (1761) and loss of all other settlements in India by the French.
✦ Conclusion of Peace and restoration of the settlements to the French (1763).
REASONS FOR ENGLISH SUCCESS
✦ Naval superiority of the British, facilitating swift movement of the English to and from India.
✦ Comparatively secure geographical position of England.
✦ Home government’s complete approval to the politics and programmes of the English; little interest of the French government in Indian affairs.
✦ Stronger financial position of the British.
✦ Establishment of the English control over Bengal, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of India then
✦ English control over Bombay and Madras.
✦ Lack of coordination between the policy of Dupleix and the French government
✦ Recall of Bussy from Hydrabad.
BRITISH CONQUEST OF BENGAL
✦ Bengal a very the rich province of the Mughal empire developed into an independent kingdom under Aliardi Khan. After his death, his grandson Siraj-ud-daulah became the Nawab of Bengal.
BATTLE OF PLASSEY(AD 1757) CAUSES
✦ The British and other European companies engaged renovation works without informing to Bengal nawab. But the nawab order to stop renovation works. The British did not consider nawab orders this action provoking the nawab against British.
BLACK HOLE TRAGEDY, 1756
✦ It is said that 146 English prisoners, held by the Mughals, were crowded into a small chamber that had a single, small window on a june night in 1756. Several of prisoners died of suffocation and wounds. This aroused the dignation of Englishmen in India. However, historians treat this tragedy as a myth rather than reality.
✦ On 23rd June 1757 Siraj-ud-daulah met Robert Clive in a village called Plassey near Calcutta. Within a few hours, the Nawab was defeated and killed. British made Mir Jafar as the administrator of Bengal.
✦ Misinterpretation of the Mughal ‘farman’ by the British, and their misuse of the ‘dastaks’ or free passes.
✦ Between Bengal Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah and the English.
✦ Black hole tragedy.
✦ Marked the beginning of the ‘Drain of Wealth’ from India to Britain.
BATTLE OF BUXAR, 1764
✦ Mir Jafar was removed and Mir Quasim was made as the Nawab of Bengal.
✦ Conflict for sovereign power between English and Mir Quasim and the Nawab Mir Quasim abolished Dastak rights (free trade rights). It affect the British trades so that they start war against Nawab.
✦ Mir Quasim made an alliance with Shah Alam-II and Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-daulah; English defeated them.
✦ A Battle between the combined army of Indian rulers and British took place at Battle of Buxar on October 22, 1764. In this battle, Mir Qasim and others were defeated.
✦ Introduction of Dual government after an arrangement with the Nawab of Bengal.
✦ Tus, the English had all the power and no responsibility, while the Nawab had responsibility(or administration) but no power.
✦ In May 1765, Robert Clive become The Governor General of Bengal for the first time.
✦ The TREATY OF ALLAHABAD was signed in 1765 between the English on one-side and Shah Alam-II and Shuja-ud-daulah on the other side. As per treaty British received Diwani rights from Shah Alam II instead off British gave pension to Nawab and Kara, Allahabad handover to Shah Alam and now they took all the territories of Shah Alam.
✦ As per treaty Suja-ud-doula accepted to pay fifty million to British.
FIRST ANGLO-MYSORE WAR(1766-1769)
✦ Haider Ali made expedition against Tiruvangur. This place was protected by British so that start war against Haider and British wanted to control Haider Ali’s rapid growth.
✦ The British try to form a tripartite against Haider, the Nizam and the Marathas.
✦ As Haider Ali was a great diplomat, he brought off the Marathas and won over the Nizam and thus broke the alliance. The war was brought to an end by signing of the Treaty of Madras(1769). As per treaty if any third person attacked one should help other.
SECOND ANGLO-MYSORE WAR (1780-1784)
✦ The main causes of second Mysore war is British failed to help Mysore during the invasion of Marathas so that war started.
✦ Formation of an alliance by Haider with Nizam and Marathas against the English in 1779.
✦ Death of Haider and succession of Tipu Sultan.
✦ End of the war as a draw and conclusion of the Treaty of Manglore by Tipu.
✦ By which both parties agree to restore the conquered territories to each other.
THIRD ANGLO-MYSORE WAR(1790-1792)
Tipu sultan try to conquered Tiruvangur. So that the war started.
✦ In the III anglo mysore war (1789-1792), he was defeated by the triple alliance of British, Nizam and the Marathas and had to sign the Treaty of Srirangapatnam. By this treaty, Tipu ceded half of his territory to the English and paid a large amount as war indemnity.
FOURTH ANGLO-MYSORE WAR(1799)
✦ Tipu’s efforts to seek help from the Revolutionary France and the Muslims of Arabia, Kabul, Turkey, etc. so that British started war against Tipu.
✦ Battle of Malavalli Tipu died at srirangapatnam where he defending it. Arthur Wallesley, who was to defeat Napolean in the battle of Waterloo, also participated in this war.
✦ In 1831, William Bentick took over the administration of Mysore because of misgovernment by its ruler, but in 1880 Lord Ripon restored it to its Raja.
TREATIES SIGNED BY HYDER ALI AND TIPU SULTAN
✦ Treaty of Madras, 1769, restored the conquered territories to their respective owners.
✦ Treaty of Manglore, 1784, restored the conquered territories mutually and liberated war prisoners.
✦ Treaty of Srirangapatnam, 1792 was signed by Tipu Sultan by which he had to cede half of his territory to the company and paid a huge war reparation
FIRST ANGLO-SIKH WAR(1845-46)
✦ After the death of Ranjith Singh ,British policy of enrichment of the Punjab and their military preparations
✦ Confirmation of the suspicions of the Sikh army by the annexation of and by the British in 1843
✦ Treaty of Lahore
THE TREATY OF LAHORE(1846)
✦ The territories lying to the south of the river Sutlej were given to the company
✦ The sikh committed to pay 1.5 crore rupees to the company as war indemnity
✦ The company was given control over the mountainous areas between the Beas and they Indus rivers which included Kashmir and Hazarah
✦ Rani Jindan Kaur was made the Regent of the state and Lai Singh s the Wazir of the Maharaja.Sir Henry Lawrence was appointed as the Resident of Lahore
SECOND ANGLO-SIKH WAR(1848-1849)
✦ The Second Anglo-Sikh War took place in 1848 and 1849,between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company .It resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North –West Frontier Province by the East India Company
✦ Discontentment of the Sikh Sardars with the British control over the Punjab
✦ Annexation of the Punjab by Lord Dalk Housie and deposal of Dalip singh
FIRST ANGLO MARATHA WAR - 1775-1782
✦ In Marathiya Kingdom Ragunatharao try to capture the power from Beshwa Mathav Narayana but Beshwa’s Guardian Nana Fatnaviz defeate Ragunatharao so that he seek help from British.
✦ The Battle war started British and Marathas finally the concluded treaty of Salbai.
SECOND ANGLO MARATHA WAR (1802-1805)
✦ In this war Beshwa Bajirao accepted subsidiary alliance scheme. So that British fought against Marathiya Chiefs finally bassien treaty concluded. Arthur Wellesley defeated Marathas.
THIRD ANGLO MARATHA WAR ( 1813-1816)
✦ The year 1818 was a significant year on account of major political achievements for the British. The Maratha dream of establishing themselves as the paramount power in India was completely destroyed. Thus, the last hurdle in the way of British paramountcy was removed.
✦ The disbanded Maratha troops now looting and creating problem against British they called Pindaris and they were suppressed by British.
WAR AGAINST THE GUKHAS (1814-16)
✦ Amar singh thapa,the able general of Nepal army was forced to surrender. In March 1816, the treaty of Sagauli was concluded