1.Lengthiest Written Constitution
Constitutions are classified into written , like the American Constitution, or unwritten, like the British Constitution. The Constitution of India is the lengthiest of all the written constitutions of the world. It is a very comprehensive , elaborate and detailed document.
Originally (1949), a Preamble, 395 Articles (divided into 22 Parts) and 8 schedules. Presently, it consists of a Preamble, about 450 Articles (divided into 24 Parts) and 12 Schedules.
2.Drawn From Various Sources
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar proudly acclaimed that the Constitution of India has been framed after ‘ransacking all the known Constitutions of the World’.
The Structural part of the Constitutions is, to a large extent, derived from the government of India Act of 1935. The philosophical part of the Constitution (the fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy) derive their inspiration from the American and Irish Indian Constitution is a ‘borrowed Constitution’.
3.Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility
Constitutions are also classified into rigid and flexible. A rigid Constitution is one that requires a special procedure for its amendment.
The Constitutions of India is neither rigid nor flexible but a synthesis of both. Articles 368 provides for two types of amendments.
4.Federal System with Unitary Bias
Indian Constitution has been variously described as ‘federal in form but unitary in spirit’, ‘quasi-federal’ by K C Wheare, ‘bargaining federalism’ by Morris Jones, Co-operative federalism’ by Granville Austin, ‘federation with a centralizing tendency’ by Ivor Jennings , and so on.
5.Parliamentary Form of Government
6.Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and judicial Supremacy
7.Integrated and Independent Judiciary
9.Directive Principles of State Policy
11.A Secular State
12.Universal Adult Franchise