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Ancient India
1. There are only two known examples of cave paintings of the Gupta period in ancient India.  One of these is paintings of ancient India.  One of these is paintings of Ajanta caves.  Where is the other surviving examples of Gupta paintings?
    a) Bagh caves                  b) Ellora caves
    c) Lomas Rishi caves     d) Nasik caves
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Bagh caves in Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh were built by Dattaka, a Buddhist bhikshu (monk) during Gupta period.  Many of the images in paintings got their context from ‘Ritusamhara’ of Kalidasa (a poet in Gupta Court). Lomas Rishi cave (Barabar, Bihar) and Nasik caves were built before the Gupta period.
 Ellora caves were built after the Gupta period.
Source : Ancient History : NCERT
2. Why did Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times ?
    1. Buddha was by that time considered as on e of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus became a part of Vaishnavism.
    2. The invading tribes from central Asia till the time of last Gupta king adopted Hinduism and persecuted Buddhists.
    3. The Kings of Gupta dynasty were strongly opposed to Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
           a) 1 only        b) 1 and 3
           c) 2 and 3     d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times because Buddha was by that time considered as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus became a part of Vaishnavism. Few in Vadas from central Asia till the time of last Gupta king adopted Buddhist religion.  The kings of the Gupta dynasty were not opposed to Buddhism even though they supported Brahmanical faith.
Source : Ancient India : NCERT
                                                                                    Medieval India
3. What was the immediate reason for Ahmad Shah Abdali to  invade India and fight the Third Battle of Panipat?
a) He wanted to avenge the expulsion by Marathas of his Viceroy Timur Shah from Lahore
b) The frustrated Government of Jullundhar Adina Beg Khan invited him to invade Punjab.
c) He wanted to punish Mughal administration for non-payment of the revenues of the Chahar Mahal (Gujarat, Aurangabad, Sialkot and Pasrur)
d) He wanted to annex all the fertile plains of Punjab upto the borders of Delhi to his Kingdom
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The immediate reason for Ahmad Shah Abadali to invade India and fight the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 was to avenge the expulsion by Marathas of his Viceroy Timur Shah from Lahore.  In March 1758, Raghunath  Rao, the Maratha leader, crossed into the Punjab and drove away prince Timur, who was the Ahmad Shah Abdali’s son and agent our of the Punjab.  The following months saw the Maratha authority extending upto attack.  The Martha appointed Adina Beg Khan as governor of the Punjab on his agreeing to pay an annual tribute of 75 lakhs of rupees.  On Adina’s death, Sabaji Sindhia assumed charge as Governor of the Punjab.  Perhaps, it was Raghunath Rao’s mistake to advance into Punjab without crushing Najib-ud-Daulah or befriending Shuja-ud-Daulah of Oudh or befriending the Jats and the Rajputs.  The Maratha conquest of the Punjab from the Afghans.  Was a direct challenge to Abdaly and the latter decided to accept it. 
Source : Medieval India, Part-II : H.C. Varma Medieval India : NCERT
4. Among the following, who was not a proponent of  bhakti cult?
         a) Nagarjuna     b) Tukaram
         c) Tyagaraja      d) Vallabhacharya
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Tyagaraja IMay4, 1767-Jannuary 6, 1847)  was one of the greatest composers of carnatic music of classical South Indian music.  His full name is Kakarla Tyaga Brahman.  He, alongwith his contemporaries, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Shyama Shastri forms the Trinity of Carnatic music.  He was a prolific composer and highly influential in the development of the south Indian classical music tradition. Tyagaraja composed thousands of devotional compositions, most of them in praise of Lord Rama.  His compositions remain very popular even today.  Of special mention are five of his compositions called the Pancharatna Krithis (five gems), which are often sung in programmes in his honour.
Source : Medieval India : NCERT
                                                                                   Modern India
5. With reference to Simon Commision’s recommendations, which one of the following statements is correct?
a) It recommended the replacement of diarchy with responsible government in the provinces
b) It proposed the setting up of inter-provincial council under the Home Department
c) It suggested the abolition of bicameral legislature at the centre
d) It recommended the creation of Indian Police Service with a provision for increased pay and allowances for British recruits as compared to Indian recruits.
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The Simon Commission was to enquire :into working of the system of government, the growth of education and the development of representatives’ institution in British India and matters connected therewith” and  to report “as to whether and to what extent, it is desirable to establish the or restrict the degree of responsible government then existing  therein, including the question, whether the establishment of second-third members of the local legislatures is or is not desirable.  “During the enquiry, the Commission—“ was increasingly impressed by the impossibilityof considering the constitutional problems of British India without taking into account the relations between British India and the Indian States. “
Source :Modern India: B.L.Grover
6. Four resolutions were passed at the famous Calcutta Session of Indian National Congress in 1906.  The question of either retention or of rejection of these for resolutions became the cause of a split in Congress at the next Congress Session held in Surat in 1907.
Which one of the following was not one of those resolutions?
a) Annulment of partition of Bengal    b) Boycott
c) National eduction                                d) Swadeshi
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
There was a great deal of public debate and disagreement among Moderates and Extremists in the Years 1905-1907, even when they were working together against the partitioning of Bengal, the Extremists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement from Bengal to the rest of the country.  They also wanted to gradually extend the Boycott from foreign goods to every form of association or cooperation with the Colonial Government.  The Moderates wanted to confine the Boycott part of the Movement to Bengal and wee totally opposed to its extension to the Government . Matters nearly came to a head at the Calcutta Congress Session in 1906 over the question of  its Prsidentship.  A split was avoided by choosing Dadabhai Naoroji, who was respected by all the nationalists as a great patriot.  Four compromise resolutions on the Swadeshi, Boycott, national Education and Self-Government demands were passed.  Throughout 1907, the two sides fought over differing interpretations of the four resolutions. 
Source : India’s Freedom Struggle for Independence : Bipin Chandra
7. After Quit India Movement, C. Rajagopalachari issued a pamphlet entitled “ The Way Out “. Which one of the following was a proposal in this pamphlet ?
a) The establishment of a “War Advisory Council” composed of representatives of British India and the Indian States
b) Reconstitution of the Central Executive Council in such a way that all its members, except the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief should be Indian leaders  
c) Fresh elections to the Central and Provincial Legislatures to be held at the end of 1945 and the Constitution making body to be convened as soon as possible. 
d) A solution for the Constitutional deadlock
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
In March 1944, Mr. C. Rajagopalachari evolved a formula with the “Full” approval of Gandhiji for the Congress.  The scheme embodying the formula was : (i) The League would endorse the demand for independence and cooperate with the Congress in forming a provisional government of the transitional period : (ii) At the end of the war a plebiscite of all the inhabitants in the Muslim-majority areas in the North-West and the North-East would decide whether or not they should form a separate state ; (iii) In the event of separation, agreements would be made for defence, communications and other essential matters ; (iv) These terms were to  be binding only in case of transfer by England of full power and responsibility for the Government of India. However, the constitutional deadlock continued. 
Source : Modern India: B L Grover
8. For the Karachi Session of Indian National Congress in 1931 presided over by Sardar patel, who drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme?
a) Mahatma Gandhi        b) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad   d) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar 
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Sardar Ballabhbhai Patel presided over the Karachi Session of  Indian National Congress in 1931.  The following resolution were adopted the session :
1. Fundamental Right and Economic Plan Programme were formulated by Jawaharlal Nehru and adopted in the session. 
2. It admitted Gandhi-Irwin Pact as Gandhi was allowed to attend the second Round Table conference in London. 
Source : Modern India : B L Grover
9. Who among the following were official Congress negotiators with Cripps Mission?
a) Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel
b) Acharya J. B. Kripalani and C. Rajagopalachari
c) Pandit Nehru and Maulana Azad
d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Rafi Ahmed Kidwai
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March, 19422 by the British Government to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.  The Mission was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps, a senior wing politician and government minister in the war (WAR)  cabinet of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.  Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad were official congress negotiators with Cripps Mission. 
Cripps proposal contained within  then provision with could divide India into hundred of independent pieces.  It was for this reason that ‘Gandhi opposed’ the Declaration and Urged the working committee to reject ‘the pose dated cheque.’
Source : India’s Freedom Struggle for Independence : Bipin Chandra
10. With reference to Pondicherry (now Puducherey), consider the following statements :
1. The first European power to occupy Pondicherry were the Portuguese. 
2. The second European power to occupy Pondicherry were the French.
3. The English never occupied Pondicherry.  
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
       a) 1 only     b) 2 and 3
       c) 3 only     d) 1,2 and 3
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The first European power to occupy Pondicherry ere the Portuguese.  The first Europeans to exert power in India were the Portuguese who sailed round Southern Africa in search of the trade goods of the East such as pepper, cloves, silk.  When they reached the coast of India and the islands further east they found their weapons technology and lack of moral scruples gave them at advantage over the local regimes they found.  They began a occupy parts such as Goa in India and towns in Indonesia.
Source : Moden India : B L Grover
11. Who among the following Governor-Generals created the Covenanted Civil Service of India which later came to be known as the Indian Civil Service?
a) Warren Hastings     b) Wellesley
c) Cornwallis                 d) William Bentinck  
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The Civil Services was brought into existence by Lord Cornwallis.
Cornwallis, who came to India as Governor-General in 1786, was determined to purify the administration, but the realized that the Company’s servants would not give honest and efficient service so long as they were not given adequate salaries.  He, therefor, enforced the rules against private trade and acceptance of presents and bribes by officials with strictness.  At the same time, he raised the salaries of the Company’s servants.  For example, the Collector of a district was to be paid Rs. 15000 a month and one per cent commission on the revenue collection of his district.  Infact, the  Company’s civil Service would be by seniority so that its members would remain independent of outside influence. 
Source : Modern India : B L Grover
12. What was the immediate cause of the  launch of the Swadeshi Movement ?
a) The partition of Bengal done by Lord Curzon
b) A sentence of 18 months rigorous imprisonment  imposed on Lokmanya Tilak
c) The arrest and deportation of Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh; and  passing of the Punjab Colonization Bill 
d) Death sentence pronounced on the Chapekar brothers
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The Swadeshi Movement had its genesis in the anto-partition movement which was started to oppose the British decision to partition Bengal.  There was no questioning the fact that Bengal with a population of 78 Million (about a quarter of the population of British India) had indeed become administratively unwieldy. Equally there was no escaping the fact that the real motive for partitioning Bengal was political.  Indian nationalism was gaining in strength and partition expected to weaken what was perceived as the nerve centre of Indian nationalism at the time.  The attempt, in the won of Lord Curzon, the Viceroy (1899-1905) was to ‘dethrone Calcutta’ from its position as the centre from which the Congress party manipulated Bengal and indeed, the whole of India.  
Source : India’s Freedom Struggle for Independence : Bipin Chandra
13. Consider the following statements:
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to come to Champaran to investigate the problem of peasants.
2. Acharya J. B. Kripalani was one of  Mahatma Gandhi’s colleagues in his Champaran investigation. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
a) 1 only               b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2   d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The story of Champaran beings in the early nineteenth century when European planters had involved the cultivatiors in agreement that forced them to cultivate indigo on 3/20th of their holdings (known as the tinkathia systems). Towards the end of the nineteenth century. German synthetic days forced indigo out of the market and the European planters of Champaran keen to release the cultivators from the obligation of cultivating indigo, tried to turn their necessity to their advantage by securing enhancements in rent and other illegal dues as a price for the release.  Resistance had surfaced in 1908 as well, but the exactions of the planters continued till Raj Kumar Shukla, a local man, decided to follow Gandhiji all over the country to persuade him to come to Champaran to investigate the problem. 
Gandhiji and his collegues, who now included Brijkishore, Rajendra Prasad and other members of the Bihar Intelligentsia, Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parikh, two young  man from Gujarat who had thrown in their lot with Gandhiji and J. B. Kripalani, toured the villages and from dawn to dusk recorded the statements of peasants, interrogating them to make sure that they were giving correct information. 
Source : India’s Freedom Struggle for Independence : Bipin Chandra 
14. By a regulation in 1793, the District Collector was deprived of  his  judicial powers and made the collecting agent only. 
What was the reason for such regulation?
a) Lord Cornwallis felt that the District Collector’s efficiency of revenue collection would enormously increase without the burden of  other work
b) Lord Cornwallis felt that Judicial power should compulsorily be in the hands of Europeans.  While Indians.  Can be given the job of revenue collection in the districts
c) Lord Cornwallis was alarmed at the exten of power concentrated in the District Collector and felt that such absolute power was undesirable in one person  
d) The judicial work demanded a deep knowledge of India and a good training in law and Lord Cornwallis felt that District collector should be only a revenue collector.
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Cornwallis judicial  reforms took the final shape by 1793 and were embodied in the famous Cornwallis Code.  The new reforms were based on the principle of separation of  powers.  Under the influence of the eighteenth century French philosophers.  Cornwallis sought to separate the revenue administration from the administration of justice. The collector was the head of revenue department in a district and also enjoyed extensive judicial and magisterial powers.  Cornwallis rightly believed that concentration of  all powers in the hands of the Collector in the district retarded the improvement of the country.  How could the Collector acting as a judge of the Diwni Adalat redress the wrongs done by him as Collector or assessor of revenue. Thus, neither the landlords nor the cultivators could regard the Collector as am impartial judge in revenue cases.  The Cornwallis code divested the Collectior of all judicial and magisterial powers and left him with the duty of administration of revenue.  A new class of officer called the District Judge was created to preside over the District Civil Court. The District Judge was also given magisterial and police functions. 
Source : Modern India : B L Grover
15. Consider the following statements :
1. The :Bombay Manifesto” singed in 1936 openly opposed the preaching of socialist ideals. 
2. It evoked support from a large section of business community form all across India. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
          a) 1 only             b) 2 only
          c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The ‘Bombay Manifesto’ signed in 1936 by twenty-one Bombay businessmen, contained an open indictment of Nehru’s preaching of socialist ideals which were deemed prejudicial to private property and to the peace and  prosperity of the country.
Although it did not evoked support from any other section of the business community, it strengthened the hands of the moderates within the Congress like Bhulabhai Desai and G. B. Pant, who pur pressure on Nehru to tone down his Socialist utterances. 
Source : India’s Freedom Struggle for Independence : Bipin Chandra
Geography of India
16. Following are the characteristics of an area in India : 
1. Hot and humid climat
2. Annual rainfall 200cm
3. Hill slopes upto an altitude of 1100 m
4. Annual range of temperature 150C to 300C
Which one among the following crops are you most likely to find in the area described above ?
            a) Mustard       b) Cotton
            c) Pepper          d) Virginia tobacco
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Mustard is principally grown relatively in arid areas. Cotton is grown in black soil region which does not require 200 cm of rainfall.  Virginia tobacco cannot exist above 125 cm rainfall.  Conditions given are conducive for the growth of pepper.
Source : Comprehensive Geography of India : D. R. Khullar
17. With reference to the mineral resources of India, consider the following pairs :
           Mineral           90% Natural sources in
          1. Copper             Jharkhand
          2. Nickel                Orissa
          3. Tungsten          Kerala
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?
         a) 1 and 2     b) 2 only
         c) 1 and 3     d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Most of Nickel reserves on India are found in Cuttack, Keonjhar and  Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa (92%). Copper is mostly found in Bihar-Jharkhand (44%) and  Rajasthan (20%). Tungsten is produced only in Degana mine in Rajasthan.
Source : Geography of India : C B Memoria
18. The approximate representation of land use classification in India is :
a) Net area sown 25%;forests 33%; other areas 42%
b) Net area sown 58%;forests 17%; other areas 25%
c) Net area sown 43%;forests 29%; other areas 28%
d) Net area sown 47%;forests 23%; other areas 30%
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
The approximate representation of land use classification in India is option (d), because Net sown area is 46% and total forest area is 22.96%
Source : India 2010 : Publication Division, Govt. Of India 
19. consider the following pairs :
             Protected area                Well-known for
  1. Bhiterkanika,                     Orissa Salt Water Crocodile
  2. Desert, National Park,     Great Indian Bustard Rajasthan   
  3. Eravikulam,                        Keral Hoolak Gibbon
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
             a) 1 only    b) 1 and 2
             c) 2 only    d) 1, 2 and 3
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Eravikulam National  Park is known for Nilgiri. Tahr, Hoolak Gibbon are found in the Manas National park, Namdapha National Park and Kaziranga National park in the North Eastern India. 
Source : Comprehensive Geography of India : D. R Khullar
20. In India, which type of forest among the following occupies the largest area?
a) Montane Wet Temperate Forest
b) Sub-tropical Dry Evergreen Forest
c) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest
d) Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
  Types of Forest Area(in percentage)
  Montane Wet Temperate 3.45%
  Sub-tropical Dry Evergreen 0. 36%
  Tropical Moist Deciduous 33.92%
  Tropical Wet Evergreen 8.75%
Source : From Comprehensive Geography of India : D R Khullar
21.Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of mill-made cotton yarn in the country. What could be the reason?
1. Black cotton soil is the predominant type of soil in the state.
2. Rich pool of skilled labour is available.
Which of the above is/are the correct reasons?
        a) 1 only              b) 2 only
       c) Both 1 and 2   d) Neither 1 nor 2
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
In Tamil Nadu, major soils are red sandy, alluvial and red loamy soils.  Tamil Nadu has one of the most skilled labour forces in India.
Source : Geography of India : C B Memoria
22. Rivers that pass through Himachal Pradesh are:
a) Beas and Chenab only
b) Beas and Chenab only
c) Chenab, Ravi and Satluj only
d) Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Satluj and Yamuna
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Beas flows through Mandi, Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh. Chenab flows through Keylang, Mandi etc, districts.  Ravi flows through Chamba distict of Himachal Pradesh.  Satluj flows through Kalpa, Bilaspur etc, districts of Himachal Pradesh.  Yamuna makes boundary between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.  It flows though Nahan district and enter in  Himachal Pradesh in Sirmur district.
Source : Oxford Student Atlas Geography of India : C B Memoria
23. When you travel in certain parts of India, you will notice red soil.  What is the main reason for this colour ?
a) Abundance of magnesium
b) Accumulated humus
c) Presence of ferric oxides
d) Abundance of phosphates
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Iron makes oxides on chemical weathering, so as to give red colour to the soil. 
Source : Physical Geography : Savinder Singh 
24. Which one of the following is the appropriate reason for considering the Gondwana rocks as most important of rock systems of India?
a) More then 90% of limestone reserves of India are found in them
b) More than 90% of India’s Coal reserves are found in them
c) More than 90% of fertile black cotton soils are spread over them
d) None of the reasons given above is appropriate in this context
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Around 98% of coal reserves of India are found in Gondwana rock system. 
Source : Geography of India : Gopal Singh
25. With reference of the river Luni, which one of the following statements is correct?
a) it flows into Gulf of Khambhat
b) It flows into Gulf of Kuchchh
c) It flows into Pakistan and merges with a tributary of Indus
d) It is lost in the marshy land of the Rann of Kuchchh
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Luni is an endorheic river which makes an inward flowing pattern in semi-arid zone of Rajasthan. 
Source : Oxford student Atlas
26. Which one of the following pairs in not correctly matched ?
        Dam/Lake            River
  (a) Govind Sagar   : Satluj
  (b) Kolleru Lake    : Krishna
  (c) Ukai Reservoir : Tapi
  (d) Wular lake        : Jhelum
Explanation ----------------------------------------------
Govind Sagar dam is on Satluj (HP)  near Punjab border.  Kolleru lake is located between Krishna and Godawari river valleys and serves as a natural flood balancing reservoir for both the rivers. River budaneru  (sorrow of Vijayawada) drains into Kolleru lake.  Ukai reservoir on Tapi river (Gujarat) near Maharashtra border, Wular lake is on river Jhelum. 
27. Consider the following statements:
1. The Taxus tree naturally found in the Himalayas. 
2. The Taxus tree is listed in the Red Data Book.
3. A drug called ‘taxol’ is obtained from Taxus tree is effective against Parkinson’s disease. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
        a) 1 only        b) 1 and 2
        c) 2 and 3     d) 1, 2 and 3
28.If there were no Himalayan ranges, what would have been the most likely geographical impact on India?
1. Much of the country would experience the cold waves from Siberia. 
2. Indo-gangetic plain would be devoid of such extensive alluvial soils. 
3. The pattern of monsoon would be different from what it is at present. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
         a) 1 only      b) 1 and 3
         c) 2 and 3   d) 1, 2 and 3
29. The latitudes that pass through Sikkim alxo pass through :

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